Son of a wealthy Chinese man and an English noblewoman, the boy who would be the Mandarin grew up an orphan in the years following the Chinese Revolution. When his family was taxed beyond their ability to pay, the young man journeyed into the Valley of the Spirits where he discovered a crashed alien spaceship. After studying their technology for years, the Mandarin was able to learn how to use the ten rings he found which powered the spacecraft. With his newly found power, the Mandarin strives to exert his control over the world, with the aid of the Chinese government who has come to fear him. One such plot involved the attempted theft of several Stark Industries missiles and planes, causing Iron Man to become involved. From that point onward, Iron Man would prove to the Mandarin’s primary foe.

After Iron Man left the Avengers, the Mandarin enlisted the aid of the Swordsman in planting an explosive in Avengers Mansion in preparation for Iron Man’s eventual return. (Avengers #20)

First Appearance: Tales of Suspense #50
Most Recent Appearance: Avengers #20

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